Esters: general characteristics and application - Read useful advice
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How difficult is the air?
Difficulties begin already c names, which he called esters. For their designation it was once developed a well-defined formula. That is the name of the air taken form of two words. As a radical taken title alcohol, and thereto is added the title acid as a hydrocarbon, and the end of the "atomic".
And thus created the following name: propilmetanoat, izopripilmetanoat, ethyl acetate, melpropionat.
Formulation esters is not always in their synthesis. Substantially esters found in nature, as they are part of essential oils of many plants. For example, uksusnoizoamilovy ether, better known as "pear essence" because it is part of the essential oils of pears, and many colors.
At the same time, other esters of glycerol and higher fatty acids are the chemical basis of virtually all fats and oils. Nevertheless, certain esters have to be synthesized, either because they are rare, or are naturally occurring in very limited quantities.
For synthesis, or, as it is known, the esterification between carboxylic acid and an alcohol require an active catalyst, as it often acts concentrated sulfuric acid. It being catalyst process activates a carboxylic acid molecule. The rate of reaction between the carboxylic acid and alcohol is largely dependent on how precisely with the carbon atom bound to the OH-group (primary, secondary or tertiary). Besides important and chemical nature of acid and alcohol, play a role and structure of the hydrocarbon chain, which is linked with the carboxyl.
Hydrolysis reaction of esters
The hydrolysis reaction (saponification) esters is the inverse of esterification. Its main drawback - a very low rate. Although the speed can be significantly increased by adding into the reaction mixture with mineral acids or alkalis.
And it is interesting that the saponification in an alkaline environment is many times faster. Thus, esters hydrolysed, generally under alkaline conditions, while ethers - in acidic.
High resistance to the effects of esters of various oxidizing agents determined that they long ago began to be used in chemical synthesis and analysis in order to protect the alcoholic and phenolic groups.
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