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"Historical Letters" P. Lavrov: the emergence of subjectivity in sociology
The ideas laid the foundation base of the subjectivist trend in sociology, were first made by Peter Lavrov, in his "Historical Letters". Devoted considerable attention to the development of the concept of social progress, the Russian scientist offered his interpretation of the theory of society, the laws of its formation and development direction.
In the center of "Historical Letters" Lavrov is a person. That its author considered the bearer of moral ideals and the force that has the ability to change the social forms of life. Lavrov believed that a person, being a subjective factor in social development, bears full responsibility for the forward movement of society towards progress.
The formula of social progress in the treatment Lavrov was: the progress of society is the development of the individual in the moral, intellectual and physically embodied in the form of social justice and the truth. This wording makes a person with her subjective perception of reality, the main driving force of society.
Sociological method Lavrov
Considering the objective research methods are suitable only for the natural sciences, Lavrov suggested using diametrically opposed in sociology, subjective approach. At the forefront of the scientist put no group forms of social organization and a person who acts in a society under the influence of subjective motives, and not guided by external environmental factors. In order to understand the personality and the direction of its actions, the sociologist has to identify himself with it, using the principle of empathy.
The goals set by the company, can be implemented only person, said a representative of the subjectivist school. The absorption of the individual society and the depersonalization of the social individual become an obstacle to progress. The method of understanding the history and social development becomes a subjective approach and the individual actions of individual representatives of society.
However, able to make history, not every person thought Lavrov, but only one that is endowed with critical thinking. Such people are a minority in society, but they are the driving force of progress and determine the moral character of society. The task of the rest of the society is to provide critically-minded fellow best conditions for existence. The methodological approach Lavrov, thus exaggerating the role of the progressive intelligentsia, pushing the masses into the background.
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