Pulmonary embolism: clinical presentation and treatment algorithm - Read useful advice

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Causes of pulmonary thromboembolism

The most common cause of blockage of the pulmonary arteries or branches of a thrombus - phlebothrombosis. Much less embolization occurs when the hyperextension of the right ventricle of the heart. Contributing factors are the rheumatic heart disease, sepsis, obesity, nephrotic syndrome, sedentary lifestyle or forced compliance with bed rest, abdominal surgery, congestive heart failure, uncontrolled supplementation with estrogen, laxatives and diuretics. The greatest threat to the development of pulmonary embolism are blood clots, which are connected to the distal vein wall that is floating.

The clinical picture of pulmonary embolism

Patients have a sharp pain in the chest, shortness of breath, tachycardia, blood pressure drops rapidly to critical levels. Pulmonary infarction is accompanied by hemoptysis, presyncope or fainting. On examination, there is pulmonary hypertension, signs of acute pulmonary heart: Ripple and jugular veins. There may be dry rales over the lungs. The liver is enlarged.

Diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism

Prehospital emergency doctor has to make a clear assessment of medical history, conduct an electrocardiogram. The final diagnosis is in the hospital after the X-ray inspection, if detected high standing of the diaphragm, lung congestion, pleural effusion. Verification of the diagnosis is recommended to be carried out using the results of perfusion lung scintigraphy

Algorithms treating pulmonary thromboembolism

The first patients were intravenous heparin cropped pain using narcotic or non-narcotic analgesics. If hypotension and right heart failure, shock, showing pressor amines reopoligljukin. With symptoms of bronchospasm administered aminophylline. All patients received oxygen therapy is recommended.

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