Nephropathy - a condition in which damage develops in 50% of patients with diabetes mellitus. This condition is not reversible and navigate to invalizatsii patients.
1. metal intoxication;
3. Medications that are used for a long time;
4. metabolic disorders in the body;
5. Various tumor;
6. Toxic factors;
7. Abnormalities of the urinary tract and kidneys;
Clinic appears quite late. Very often, the complaints appear to have terminally ill diabetic nephropathy.
There are 5 stages of nephropathy.
Stage 1 - hyper function of the kidneys. At this stage the protein is detectable in urine. Increasing filtration and urine. vascular cells slightly increased in size.
Stage 2 - the changes in the structure of the kidney. Once diagnosed with diabetes develops in 2 years. Thickens the walls of blood vessels. no protein in urine. The clinical manifestations are absent.
Stage 3 - it usually develops within 5 years after the disease. The urine is determined by a small amount of protein. This testifies to the small vascular injury. Changes glomerular filtration rate.
During the first three stages of the standard methods to identify the disease is impossible. It is these 3 steps are reversible.
At stage 4 laboratory can detect high blood pressure and swelling.
Stage 5 is characterized by pronounced Clinic. This process is unfortunately not reversible.
An early symptom of nephropathy may be anemia, impaired production of erythropoietin. Therefore, in patients with diabetes, appeared anemia should alert the clinician.
Proteinuria develops as a result of functional disorders of the glomeruli of the kidney.
The appearance of protein in the urine is a sign of the last stage has nephropathy.
Uremia - the final stage is characterized by vomiting, lethargy, headache, pruritus, diarrhea. Seizures and coma develops, if time does not help.
1. Definition of proteinuria;
3. Ultrasound of the kidneys;
4. Determination of white blood cells;
5. According to the testimony of kidney biopsy;
6. Identify albumin in the urine.
Methods of treatment of nephropathy is divided into 3 phases.
Stage 1. Prevention of injury in diabetes renal vessels. At this stage sugar-appointed agents.
Stage 2. Maintaining normal levels of albumin. Not unimportant is the treatment of hypertension. ACE inhibitors such as enaprilin. It shows the diet with high protein content.
Stage 3. The aim is to prevent the development of end-stage. Introduced proteinuria may be the first signal of decline in renal function. appointed by the amino acids, for example Ketosteril. For ACE inhibitors or bisoprolol attached amlodipine. In severe edema control the volume of liquid prescribed diuretics.
Reduced glomerular filtration requires replacement therapy or kidney transplantation. By replacement therapy include hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.
1. Correction of carbohydrate metabolism;
2. Maintenance of blood sugar within normal limits;
3. Normalization of blood pressure;
5. Basic rules for personal hygiene;
6. No hypothermia.