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The dialectic - is one of the methods of philosophical discussion, based on the argument, as well as a special way of myshleniya.Eto concept, as well as many other basic philosophical terms, has appeared in antiquity. He coined by Plato in his famous work "Dialogues." He used the dialectical method in describing conversations with several participants, during which reveals various contradictions in opinions. These contradictions and give a better understanding of the subject of the discussion.
In medieval philosophy continued development of dialectics. Then below it meant the art of debate, in principle, which includes the correct formulation of questions and answers, competent selection of reasoning and logical analysis of the material prior to its submission to the audience.
In modern times, the philosophy has reached a new level of development, greatly expanded research perspective. Dialectics continued to be actively used. For example, a well-known representative of the German school of philosophy Fichte created a way to create philosophies through the antithesis, which was very close to the dialectical method. Also, a significant contribution to the dialectic of Hegel did.
Dialectic has become one of the main methods of Marxist philosophy. But, unlike Hegel, Marx considered the matter to the spirit and primary, respectively, with the dialectical method applied primarily to explain the laws of reality, and not for speculative ideas about it.
Later, a co-author Karl Marx - Friedrich Engels formulated the so-called "laws of dialectics." The first of them, understood as the "transition from quantity to quality," explains the interdependence of these two categories. This law is explained as natural phenomena, such as changing the physical state of matter, and the public, for example, changing formations.
The second law reveals the problem of the unity and struggle of opposites. According to him, it leads to the development of the contradictions and changes. In the example of the public sphere of the law can serve as a class struggle, serving for social development.
The third law, called the "negation of the negation," illustrates the process of change of any phenomenon. To purchase a new quality phenomenon should lose the old.
It is also an important part of Marxist dialectics has become a special method of logical constructions, expressed in the "thesis-antithesis-synthesis". According to her, on every controversial statement need to nominate another to deny it, and both of them derive the idea of synthesis, consisting of the strengths of both statements.
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